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Windows XP codenamed Whistler is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
It was released to manufacturing on August 24,and broadly released for retail sale on October 25, Development of Windows XP began in the late s as " Neptune ", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel which was intended specifically for mainstream consumer use.
An updated version of Windows was also originally planned for the business market; however, in Januaryboth projects were shelved in favor of a single OS codenamed "Whistler", which would serve as a single OS platform for both consumer and business markets. It introduced a significantly redesigned graphical user interface and was the first version of Windows to use product activation in an мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха to reduce its copyright infringement.
Upon its release, Windows XP received generally positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and overall мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха especially in comparison to Windows MEa more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, and expanded multimedia capabilities.
It is estimated that at least мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха copies of Windows XP were sold globally within its first five years of availability,   and at least one billion copies were sold by April Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8,after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
Other estimates are as high as 4. Its market share is no longer in double digits in the vast majority of countries. In the late s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products; " Odyssey ", which was reportedly intended to succeed the future Windowsand " Neptune ", which was reportedly a consumer-oriented operating system using the Windows NT architecture, succeeding the MS-DOS -based Windows Based on the NT 5.
A number of activity centers were planned, serving as hubs for email communications, playing music, managing or viewing photos, searching the Internet, and viewing recently used content. A single build of Neptune, which still carried the branding of Windows in placesrevealed early work on the activity center concept, with an updated user account interface and graphical мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха screen, common functions мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха as recently used programs being accessible from a customizable "Starting Places" page which could be used as either a separate window, or a full-screen desktop replacement.
However, the мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха proved to be too ambitious. Microsoft discussed a plan to delay Neptune in favor of an interim OS known as "Asteroid", which would have been an update to Windows Windows NT 5. In Januaryshortly prior to the official release of Windowstechnology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed Whistlerafter Whistler, British Columbiaas many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort.
Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from [Windows ME] were simply re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". Windows general manager Carl Stork stated that Whistler would be released in both consumer- and business-oriented versions built atop the same architecture, and that there were plans to update the Windows interface to make it "warmer and more friendly".
In JuneMicrosoft began the technical beta testing process. Whistler was expected to be made available in "Personal", "Professional", "Server", "Advanced Server", and "Datacenter" editions.
At PDC on July 13,Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half ofand also released the first preview build, Microsoft released Whistler Beta 1, buildon October 31, In Januarybuild introduced Internet Explorer 6.
Bill Gates dedicated a portion of his keynote at Consumer Electronics Show to discuss Whistler, explaining that the OS would bring "[the] dependability of our highest end corporate desktop, and total dependability, to the home," and also "move it in the direction of making it very consumer-oriented.
Making it very friendly for the home user to use. Microsoft stated that the name "[symbolizes] the rich and extended user experiences Windows and Office can offer by embracing Web services that span a broad range of devices.
A representative stated that the company had "[recognized] the importance of USB 2. Microsoft had originally planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24,Windows XP build was released to manufacturing. Мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campuscopies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcaseswho then flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24,XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, XP also added ClearTypea new subpixel rendering system designed to improve мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul on XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list, pin, and display frequently used applications, recently opened documents, and the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows.
The notification area also hides "inactive" icons by default. The taskbar can also be "locked" to prevent accidental moving or other changes.
Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and logging out. Although only one user at the time can use the console i. Windows XP uses prefetcher to improve startup and application launch times. All Windows licenses must be tied to a unique ID generated using мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха from the computer hardwaretransmitted either via the internet or a telephone hotline.
If Windows is not activated within 30 days of installation, the OS will cease to function until it is activated.
Windows also periodically verifies the hardware to check for changes. If significant hardware changes are detected, the activation is voided, and Windows must be re-activated. Some of the programs and features that were part of the previous versions of Windows did not make it to Windows XP.
DLC and AppleTalk network protocols are removed. Plug-and-play—incompatible communication devices like modems and network interface cards are no longer supported. The Energy Star logo and the address bar on the taskbar are removed in Мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха Pack 3.
Windows XP was released in two major editions on launch: Home Edition and Professional Edition. Both editions were made available at retail as pre-loaded software on new computers, and in boxed copies. Boxed copies were sold as "Upgrade" or "Full" licenses; the "Upgrade" versions were slightly cheaper, but require an existing version of Windows to install. The "Full" version can be installed on systems without an operating system or existing version of Windows.
Home Edition is explicitly intended for consumer use мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха disables or removes certain advanced and enterprise-oriented features present on Professionalsuch as the ability to join a Windows domainInternet Information Servicesand Multilingual User Interface. Two specialized variants of XP were introduced in for certain types of hardware, exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software.
The OS is primarily aimed at first-time computer owners, containing heavy localization including wallpapers and screen savers incorporating images of local landmarksand a "My Support" area which contains мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха tutorials on basic computing tasks. It also removes certain "complex" features, and does not allow users to run more than three applications at a time.
After a pilot program in India and ThailandStarter was released in other emerging markets throughout As the result of unfair competition lawsuits in Europe and South Koreawhich both alleged that Microsoft had improperly leveraged its status in the PC market to favor its own bundled software, Microsoft was ordered to release special versions of XP in these markets that excluded certain applications. As it was sold at the same price as the version with Windows Media Player included, certain OEMs such as Dellwho offered it for a short period, along with Hewlett-PackardLenovo and Fujitsu Siemens chose not to offer it.
Consumer interest was minuscule, with roughly 1, units shipped to OEMsand no reported sales to consumers.
A service pack is cumulative update package that is a superset of мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха updates, and even service packs, that have been released before it.
Service Pack 3 is slightly different, in that it needs at least Service Pack 1 to have been installed, in order to update a live OS. It contained over minor, post-RTM bug fixes, along with all security patches released since the original release of XP. SP1 also added USB 2. The most significant change on SP1 was the addition of Set Program Access and Defaultsa settings page which allows programs to be set as default for certain types of activities such as media players or web browsers and for access to bundled, Microsoft programs such as Internet Explorer or Windows Media Player to be disabled.
This feature was added to comply with the settlement of United States v. Service Pack 2 also added new security enhancements codenamed "Springboard" which included a major revision to the included firewall renamed Windows Firewall, and now enabled by defaultData Execution Prevention gained hardware support in the NX bit that can stop some forms of buffer overflow attacks. Raw socket support is removed which supposedly limits the damage done by zombie machines and the Windows Messenger service which had been abused to cause pop-up advertisements to be displayed as system messages without a web browser or any additional software became disabled by default.
Additionally, security-related improvements were made to e-mail and web browsing. Third-party firewall and antivirus software can also be monitored from Security Center. This was done so that the browser would not violate a patent owned by Eolas. It began being automatically pushed out to Automatic Updates users on July 10, Service Pack 3 also incorporated several previously released key updates for Windows XP, which were not included up to SP2, including:.
NET Framework version 1. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows XP can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture, as shown in the following table.
Windows XP supports a greater number of logical processors. A logical processor is either: Windows XP bit editions support up to 32 logical processors;  bit editions support up to 64 logical processors. Support for Windows XP without a service pack ended on September 30, Variants of Windows XP for embedded systems have different support policies: On April 14,Windows XP exited mainstream support and entered the Extended support phase; Microsoft continued to provide security updates мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха month for Windows XP; however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes were no longer being offered.
Extended support ended on April 8,over 12 years since the мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха of XP; normally Microsoft products have a support life cycle of only 10 years. Plans were being made by several ATM vendors and their customers to migrate to Windows 7-based systems over the course ofwhile vendors have also considered the possibility of using Linux-based platforms in the future to give them more flexibility for support lifecycles, and the ATM Industry Association ATMIA has since endorsed Windows 10 as a further replacement.
The government also мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха concerns that the impending end of support could affect their anti-piracy initiatives with Microsoft, as users would simply pirate newer versions rather than purchasing them legally.
As such, government officials formally requested that Microsoft extend the support period for XP for these reasons.
While Microsoft did not мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха with their requests, a number of major Chinese software developers, such as Lenovo, Kingsoft and Tencentwill provide free support and resources for Chinese users migrating from XP. On March 8,Microsoft deployed an update for XP that, on the 8th of each month, displays a pop-up notification to remind users about the end of support; however, these notifications may be disabled by the мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха.
Despite the approaching end of support, мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха were still notable holdouts that had not migrated past XP; many users elected to remain on XP because of the poor reception of Windows Vistasales of newer PCs with newer versions of Windows declined due to the Great Recession and the effects of Vista, and deployments of new versions of Windows in enterprise environments require a large amount of planning, which includes testing applications for compatibility especially those that are dependent on Internet Explorer 6, which is not compatible with newer versions of Windows.
Similarly specialized devices that run XP, particularly medical devicesmust have any revisions to their software—even security updates for the underlying operating system—approved by relevant regulators before they can be released.
For the same reason, manufacturers of medical devices had historically refused to provide, or even allow the installation of any Windows updates for these devices, leaving them open to security exploits and malware.
Despite the end of support for Windows XP, Microsoft has released two emergency security patches for the operating system to patch major security vulnerabilities:. On release, Windows XP received mostly positive reviews.
CNET described the operating system as being "worth the hype", considering the new interface to be "spiffier" and more intuitive than previous versions, but feeling that it may "annoy" experienced users with its "hand-holding".
The performance improvements of XP in comparison to and ME were also praised, along with its increased number of built-in device drivers in comparison to The software compatibility tools were also praised, although it was noted that some programs, particularly older MS-DOS software, may not work correctly on XP due to its differing architecture.
According to web analytics data мультизагрузочная флеш для восстановить xp после краха by Net ApplicationsWindows XP was the most widely used operating system until Augustwhen Windows 7 overtook it. According to web analytics data generated by W3Schools, from September to JulyWindows XP was the most widely used operating system for accessing the w3schools website, which they claim is consistent with statistics from other websites.